Piriformis muscle injection is a treatment for sciatica type pain symptoms. Sciatica is pain in the buttocks and/or down the back of the leg. In some cases there may also be pain symptoms in the hip and low back and even in the groin, genitals and rectum. X-ray dye is injected to be sure the needle is positioned correctly for the area to be treated. Medications injected include a steroid (long-acting cortisone type medication) and a local anesthetic. The actions of these medications are to reduce pain, inflammation and swelling around the nerves that pass near or through the piriformis muscle. The local anesthetic may provide immediate but brief relief. The presence or absence of immediate pain relief from the local anesthetic is helpful for the doctor to confirm whether or not the pain is coming from the piriformis muscle. The steroid can take anywhere from a few days to a week to start working, and is intended to provide extended relief. Physical therapy and/or other conservative treatments may also be recommended.